Thai Alphabet


Short (dead syllable)
Long (live syllable)

Basic Vowels

in closed
a: -
i b
i: u
u 6
u: ^
ɯ 7
ือ ɯ:
in closed

Complex vowels

in closed
e: g
in closed
ɛ: c

Although the writing is identical to the two of ,
it is still a separate key on the keyboard: .

Despite the fact that visually the result looks
the same, correct character should still be used,
so that the typing is validly read by apps such as
autocomplition, translation, search and so on.'

invisible in a
closed syllable
ending with
anything except
Example: นม nom¯ — milk
o: F
าะ ɔ
็อ in closed
invisible in a
closed syllable
ending with
Example: ละคร la´khɔ:n¯ — TV series
อะ ə gvt
in closed
in closed syllable
ending with


The vowels of this group
come with an additional
sound, as if they were
followed by an additional
consonant. So they always
make a closed syllable.
And there cannot be
another consonant after.

Reading rules remains
the same as for ordinary
closed syllables.

Can be taken as an
abbreviation for ัม
am Additional sound m here
is kinda included into the
letter. As a result it gives
us a closed live syllable.
Can be taken as an
abbreviation for ัย
ay Additional sound y here
is kinda included into the
letter. As a result it gives
us a closed live syllable.
“May Malay”
Can be taken as an
abbreviation for ัย
ay Additional sound y here
is kinda included into the
letter. As a result it gives
us a closed live syllable.
“May Muan”

Can be taken as an
abbreviation for + .

In this hint it's separated
with plus for not being
mistaken with ัว
diphthong (see above).

au Additional sound y here
is kinda included into the
letter. As a result it gives
us a closed live syllable.


Two vowel sounds merge. When
pronouncing, one smoothly turns
into the other.

It does not affect the reading
rules though. You can think about
diphthongs as ordinary vowels.

ียะ ia gut
ีย i:a
/i:ə/ in closed
Example: เรียน — learn
Supposed to be ri:an¯,
but reads as ri:ən¯.
ือะ ɯa gnt
ือ ɯ:a gnv
ัวะ Example: ขาวจั๊วะ — pristine white ua y;t
ัว u:a y;
in closed
Not to be confused with consonant.
That one is just w or u if at the end
of a syllable. And this one is the u:a
diphthong in between two consonants.
Example: สวน su:anˇ — park.

Quasi-letters These kinda set up
whole syllable.

Can be taken as an abbreviation
for รึ rɯ´ or ริ ri´. Which one
exactly depends on the word.

• Examples with รึ rɯ´:
ฤดู rɯ´du:¯ — season,
พฤกษา phrɯk´sa:ˇ — flora.

• Examples with ริ ri´:
อังกฤษ ang¯krit` — England,
ฤทธิ์ rit´ — might.

There is one more case that
stands out from the scheme
but uses the same glyph:
a long sound เรอ rə:¯.

• Example with เรอ rə:¯:
ฤกษ์ rə:kˆ — occasion.

rɯ´ / ri´ / rə:¯ The high tone is because of
the reading rules of รึ / ริ
ฤๅ Can be taken as an
abbreviation for รือ
rɯ:¯ A1

The sound is identical to ัน.
Example: กรรไกร kan¯kray¯ — scissors

The glyph is identical to the consonant .

Not to be confused with abbreviations:
ร.ร. = โรงเรียน ro:ng¯ri:ən¯ — school,
รร. = โรงแรม ro:ng¯rɛ:m¯ — hotel.

a in closed
กรรม kam¯ — karma,
วรรค wak´ — paragraph.


High class consonants (dead syllable)

kh k
ไข่ khay`
egg -
ch Technically read aspirated and the sound,
should be written as chh. But english ch
already sounds soft, and when read it is
not necessary to add an aspiration. So in
transcription we don\'t add second h.
N/A Does not occur at the
end of a syllable
ฉิ่ง ching`
“cymbals” —
mus. instrument
s t
เสือ sɯ:aˇ
tiger l
s t
ฤๅษี rɯ:¯si:ˇ
hermit K
s t
ศาลา sa:ˇla:
pavilion L
th t
ถุง thungˇ
sack, bag 5
th t
ฐาน tha:nˇ
base, pedestal {
ph N/A Does not occur at the
end of a syllable
ผึ้ง phɯngˆ
bee z
f N/A Does not occur at the
end of a syllable
ฝา fa:ˇ
lid /
It can also work as a glyph that moves the
following consonant into a high class.
Example: หมอ mɔ:ˇ — doctor. In this
example the high class reading rules
apply to the .
h N/A Does not occur at the
end of a syllable
หีบ hi:p`
chest, box s

Middle class consonants (dead syllable)

k k
ไก่ kay`
chicken d
j t
จาน ja:n¯
plate 0
d t
เด็ก dek`
child f
d t
ชฎา cha´da:¯
“Chada” —
t t
เต่า tau`
turtle 9
t t
ปฏัก pa`tak`
goad, javelin D
b p
ใบไม้ bay¯may´
leaf [
p p
ปลา pla:¯
fish x

• It can also work as a glyph that moves the
following consonant into a middle class.
There are only four words like that:
- อยู่ yu:` — to be somewher
- อยาก ya:k` — to want
- อย่า ya:` — do not
- อย่าง ya:ng` — type, kind, variety; like, as
In this example the middle class reading
rules apply to the .

• There is also a vowel with the same spelling.

Silent consonant. In Thai writing, vowels
cannot go alone without consonants, i.e.
cannot form a syllable on their own. But
a syllable can begin with a vowel sound.
In such cases is used, and the
corresponding vowel is attached to it.
Example: อะไร a`ray¯ — question “what”.

For the same reason, when writing vowels
in the alphabet, the letter is often used
instead of the placeholder symbol .


Does not occur at the end
of a syllable.

As a vowel it can be at the
end of an open syllable. In
this case, see the vowel .

อ่าง a:ng`
basin, bowl,
bathtub, sink

Low class consonants

Sonorant (live syllable)


These letters give sonorous sounds. When pronouncing such sounds, the voice (tone) is greater than the noise. For example in English language it is L, R, M, N, Y, W sounds.

' '

This is an important for learning the rules of reading. If the sonorant consonant is at the end of a syllable, then a live syllable is formed. All other consonants of all classes at the end of a syllable form a dead syllable.

n n
หนู nu:ˇ
mouse o
n n
เณร ne:n¯
“Samanera” —
ng ng
งู ngu:¯
m m
ม้า ma:´
horse ,
y y
ยักษ์ yak´
“Yaksha” — myth.
character, giant
y n
หญิง yingˇ
woman P

Similar glyph also used for the variation
of vowel diphthong ัว u:a. Specifically
its variant in closed syllable .

See this diphthong in the vowels column.
Here is another case.

w u
แหวน wɛ:nˇ
ring ;
l n
ลิง ling¯
monkey ]
l n
จุฬา ju`la:¯
kite <
r - In combinations ศร, สร or จร letter can be
silent. Unreadable itselft and does not affect
reading rules: • In the ศร it is always silent. Example ศรี si:ˇ
— majesty; glory; honor; splendor
• In the สร it is silent most of the time.
Example: สระว่ายน้ำ sa`wa:yˆnam´ — pool.
• In the จร it is always silent. Thought there is
only one word exists: จริง jing¯ — truth; really?

- Combination of ทร sometimes read as s.
Example: ทราบ sa:pˆ — to know.

- Combination รร gives vowel sound. See this
vowel at the end of vowels column.
เรือ rɯ:a¯
boat i

Voiceless (dead syllable)

kh k
ควาย khwa:y¯
buffalo 8
kh k
ระฆัง ra´khang¯
bell S
ch t
ช้าง cha:ng´
elephant =
ch N/A Does not occur at the
end of a syllable
เฌอ chə:¯
“Cho” tree G
s t
โซ่ so:ˆ
chain :
th t
ทหาร tha´ha:nˇ
soldier m
th t
ธง thong¯
flag T
th t
มณโฑ mon¯tho:¯
Montho —
name of myth.
th t
ผู้เฒ่า phu:ˆthauˆ
elder >
ph p
พาน pha:n¯
“Phan” — offering
bowl or tray
with pedestal
ph p
สำเภา samˇphau¯
ship 4
f p
ฟัน fan¯
teeth a
h N/A Does not occur at the
end of a syllable
นกฮูก nok´hu:kˆ
owl V



ศูนย์ su:nˇ
หนึ่ง nɯng`
สอง sɔ:ngˇ
สาม sa:mˇ
สี่ si:`
ห้า ha:ˆ
หก hok`
เจ็ด jet`
แปด pɛ:t`
เก้า kauˆ


for middle and high
ˆ for low
ไม้เอก may´e:kˇ
ˆ for middle and high
for low
ไม้โท may´tho:¯
for middle
ไม้ตรี may´tri:¯
ˇ for middle
ไม้จัตวา may´jat`ta`wa:¯


Silenced letter
ทัณฑฆาต than¯tha´kha:tˆ
Word repetition
ไม้ยมก may´ya´mok´
ไปยาลน้อย pay¯ya:n¯no:y´
ฯลฯ etc.
ไปยาลใหญ่ pay¯ya:n¯yay`
฿ Baht Currency in Thailand.
Example: 250฿
+ 'Currency code: THB
บาท ba:t`


Language — Язык
Letters notation
Tones notation
Example: na:y⁰kɛ:¹may²chay³mɔ:⁴
Group consonants by:



1  —  Thai letter
2  —  Keyboard key
3  —  Sound
4  —  Sound if the letter is at the end of a syllable
5  —  Letter name
6  —  Translation of the letter name


  • Open syllable — syllable containing: consonant + vowel.
    For example นา or นะ.
  • Closed syllable — syllable containing: consonant + vowel + consonant.
    For example นาน or นัน.


Add an “Alphabet” shortcut to your home screen for a app-like user experience.
  • On iOS open site in Safari, tap Share , scroll menu down and choose Add to Home Screen.
  • On Android open site in Chrome, tap More and near the end of the list, find the menu item Add to Home Screen.

Bug on Apple devices

Unfortunately, recent updates to Safari have broken the ability to highlight individual characters in Thai language. Superscript and subscript characters such as some vowels and tone marks just disappear from the page. You can see the bug in action on the test subdomain

Whatʼs even more worse is the fact that all other browsers on Apple smartphones are forced to use the Safari engine, being nothing more than just itʼs reskin. So they also inherit the bug. Basically there is no choice on the iPhone but to live with this bug.

On Apple computers, the situation is better. Only Safari is damaged. Other browsers use their own engines and work correctly. On a macbook, it would be better to use Chrome or, for example, Firefox.

Apple is aware of the problem, but it is unknown if and when they plan to fix it.

The best thing that can be done for Safari is avoiding the bug by replacing the placeholder character with an en dash and canceling color highlight. This is a less illustrative option, but at least it works:

How it looks by default.
Works in all browsers.
How it looks in Safari


  • Developed by:  Anton Shchukin (Telegram)
  • Voiced by:  Masha Muay (Instagram)
  • Special thanks to: Maria, Olga, Anton Kochenkov (Telegram), Angelina Masserovna (Telegram), Alexandra Antukh (Telegram), Evgenii Prokopiev, Roman




  • Telegram chat  —  Report a bug, suggest an idea.
  • Roadmap  —  Leave a comment in an online document.
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